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Prediabetes

Prediabetes, or borderline diabetes, is a condition where blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. In the United States, 88 million adults, or 34.5 percent of adults, have prediabetes. In South Carolina, around 31.2 percent of adults have prediabetes. If unmanaged, prediabetes can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes.

Risk Factors

There are several risk factors that can lead to the development of both prediabetes and diabetes. These include

  • being overweight or obese
  • a sedentary lifestyle
  • a family history of type 2 diabetes
  • having gestational diabetes during pregnancy
  • if you are 45 years of age or older
  • if you are African American, Hispanic, Native American, or Asian American.

Why should I know if I am at risk?

Only 15.3 percent of American adults know they have prediabetes. Prediabetes can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes within 5 years if unmanaged. However, through prevention, you can lower your risk for prediabetes and diabetes significantly. If you have any of these risk factors, take the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s risk test (https://www.cdc.gov/prediabetes/takethetest/) and talk to your doctor about getting tested.

Prevention

Why should I prevent prediabetes and type 2 diabetes?

A study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on the effects of lifestyle change and medication in preventing type 2 diabetes, found that after 10 years, rates of type 2 diabetes were reduced by 34 percent and 18 percent, respectively. In addition, behaviors that help prevent type 2 diabetes can also lower your blood pressure and cholesterol, lower your risk of heart attack and stroke, improve your sleep and mood, and give you more energy.

What can I do to prevent prediabetes and type 2 diabetes?

Although many of the risk factors are things we cannot control, making lifestyle behavior changes can help you prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes. These lifestyle changes include eating a more balanced diet, getting 150 minutes of physical activity per week, and managing stress. A study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that losing 5-7 percent of your body weight could reduce your risk for diabetes by 58 percent. Sustaining these changes long-term can help you continue to prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes.

Structured lifestyle change programs are one way to help you prevent or delay type 2 diabetes. One such program, the National Diabetes Prevention Program is an evidence-based program developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to help participants prevent or delay type 2 diabetes through lifestyle changes and weight loss.

Sources

  1. “About Prediabetes & Type 2 Diabetes.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4 April 2019, https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/prevention/about-prediabetes.html.
  2. American Diabetes Association (ADA) (n.d.). The Burden of Diabetes in South Carolina. Retrieved from http://main.diabetes.org/dorg/PDFs/Advocacy/burden-of-diabetes/south-carolina.pdf. 27 July 2019.
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Statistics Report: Estimates of Diabetes and Its Burden in the United States, 2020. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2020. Web. 25 March 2020.
  4. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Research Group. “The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP): description of lifestyle intervention.” Diabetes care vol. 25,12 (2002): 2165-71. doi:10.2337/diacare.25.12.2165
  5. Herman, William H. “The cost-effectiveness of diabetes prevention: results from the Diabetes Prevention Program and the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study.” Clinical diabetes and endocrinology vol. 1 9. 2 Sep. 2015, doi:10.1186/s40842-015-0009-1
  6. Prevent T2: A Proven Program to Prevent or Delay Type 2 Diabetes. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016.

Originally published 03/20

If this document didn’t answer your questions, please contact HGIC at hgic@clemson.edu or 1-888-656-9988.

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