The most common pests of flowering bulbs, in general, are aphids, bulb mites, slugs, and snails. In addition, thrips, bulb flies, borers, and leafrollers are among other pests that can also cause problems for certain flowering bulbs. While slugs and snails are not insects, they are major pests of flowering bulbs. For more information on these pests and their control, see HGIC 2357, Snails & Slugs in the Home Garden.
NOTE: As used in this fact sheet, the term “bulb” is used in this fact sheet to refer to true bulbs, as well as for plants that have bulb-like structures, such as corms, tubers, and rhizomes.
Various species of aphids are pests of flowering bulbs. Aphids are small, soft-bodied, pear-shaped insects. Different aphid species vary in color from yellow to green to pink to black. Adult aphids may or may not have wings.
Aphids are typically more of a problem during cool weather in the spring. They have piercing-sucking mouthparts and are usually found in clusters feeding on new growth. They insert their mouthparts and suck plant sap, which can cause deformed growth of leaves and flowers. In addition, as they feed, they excrete a sugary material called honeydew, which covers the leaves, making them sticky. Sooty mold fungi can grow on the honeydew, producing unsightly, dark splotches on the plant surfaces.
Control: Many natural enemies, including ladybird beetles (ladybugs), lacewings, syrphid flies, damsel bugs, and wasps, feed on or are parasites of aphids, generally keeping them under control. Insecticides are available, but aphids are difficult to control with chemicals because of their ability to multiply rapidly. Insecticides also kill the aphids’ natural enemies, often making the problem more severe. Aphids can be removed with a strong stream of water if applied regularly. When population numbers are low, insecticidal soap can effectively control aphids. Thoroughly spray both leaf surfaces when using insecticidal soap. For more severe infestation, sprays of bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, lambda cyhalothrin, zeta cypermethrin, or permethrin will help control aphids. See Table 1 for examples of brands and products. As with any pesticide, read and follow all label directions and precautions.
Bulb mites (Rhizoglyphus species) are not insects but are more closely related to spiders. Adult bulb mites are tiny, yellowish-white, somewhat transparent, and slow-moving. They feed on the bulb, causing weakened plants, stunted, off-color leaves, and deformed flowers. Infested bulbs often develop soft dying areas and fail to grow.
Control: Most importantly, when purchasing new bulbs, check for signs of mite damage or buy only hot-water-treated bulbs. Dipping cured bulbs in 120 °F water for 2 minutes can kill mites.
When digging bulbs to divide, heavily infested bulbs should be discarded. Handle bulbs carefully to avoid injuring them, as even slight injuries provide a site for bulb mites to enter. If possible, do not replant in infested soil.
Several thrips species, including gladiolus thrips (Taeniothrips simplex), onion thrips (Thrips tabaci), and flower thrips (Frankliniella tritici), are pests of various flowering bulbs. Adult thrips are slender, tan to dark brown, and about 1/20 to 1/16 inches long with fringed wings. They tend to be found in protected areas of the plant.
Both adults and nymphs (immature insect stage resembling the adult, but smaller) feed by scraping surface cells to suck plant sap. When they feed on flower buds, the flowers may die without opening. With light infestation, their feeding causes leaves to have brown or silvery speckles or streaks. With severe infestations, leaves and flowers are stunted and distorted and may turn brown and die.
Control: Several naturally occurring enemies feed on thrips, including green lacewings and ladybird beetles. Insecticides should be avoided as much as possible to avoid killing beneficial insects, which naturally reduce thrips populations. Bright blue or yellow sticky traps will provide some protection from thrips. Paint cardboard or wooden boards and then coat with petroleum jelly. Attach them to stakes and place them near the flowering bulbs. The adults are attracted to the yellow or blue and get caught in the petroleum jelly. Alternatively, commercial sticky card products include Tanglefoot Tangle-Trap Sticky Coating and Arbico Organics Sticky Stuff Sticky Coating. These are brushed onto painted cards to trap insects.
Insecticidal soap can be used, but thorough coverage is required. Where necessary for very valuable plants, spray with spinosad or acephate when damage is first noticed. Be sure that the plant species that you want to spray is listed on the label. See Table 1 for examples of brands and products. As with any pesticide, read and follow all label directions and precautions.
Lesser Bulb Flies: Lesser bulb flies (Eumerus species) range in size from 3/16 to 3/8 inch in length. They are dark blue with a metallic bronze sheen. The larvae (maggots) range in size from 1/16 to 3/8 inch and in color from white to grayish-yellow.
The larvae enter and then tunnel through the bulb. The bulbs begin to decay and fill with a semi-liquid material. They may be killed outright or damaged so that only very small leaves are produced the following year. The larvae survive the winter in the bulb, and the following spring, they emerge into the soil where they pupate (transform to a non-feeding stage as the larva changes into an adult form). The adults emerge, mate, and the female crawls down through openings in the soil, such as those left by leaves as they die, to lay eggs on or near bulbs. Eggs are also laid on the soil surface and the leaves at the neck of the bulb.
Control: Cultural control of this pest includes trimming and removal of leaves as soon as they dry in the spring. Lightly tilling the soil after leaf removal destroys the soil openings that the adult females use to locate the bulb.
When bulbs are dug for dividing, any soft bulbs should be destroyed. Treat
Narcissus Bulb Fly: Narcissus bulb flies (Merodon equestris) look like small bumble bees with bands of yellow or orange-brown on their bodies. The larvae (maggots) are plump, grayish-white to yellow, ranging in length from 1/16 inch when newly hatched to ¾ inch when mature.
The adult fly lays eggs on the leaves near the soil surface or the crowns. When the eggs hatch, the larvae tunnel into the bulbs, where they feed on the soft tissue. The bulbs are often hollowed out as a result of the feeding and feel soft and spongy. Once infested, bulbs often rot. Some survive but generally produce small, weak leaf blades the following year. The larvae overwinter in the bulb and then move into the soil in the spring to complete their life cycle.
Control: Narcissus bulb flies are difficult to control. Cultural control of this pest includes trimming and removing leaves as soon as they dry in the spring. Lightly tilling the soil after mowing destroys the soil openings that the adult females use to locate the bulb for egg-laying.
A control strategy used by some gardeners includes using floating row covers as a barrier to egg-laying. When bulbs are dug for dividing, you can attempt to kill the larva by trying to stab it with a needle or wire inserted through the entry hole. However, there is always a chance of not hitting the maggot and simply damaging the bulb even more. Treating bulbs in hot water (109.4 °F to 111.2 °F) for 40 minutes is effective for this pest. As mentioned for the lesser bulb flies, do not let the temperature of the hot water go over 111.2 °F.
Overall, the best control strategy is to keep your daffodils healthy by maintaining a shallow mulch layer and fertilizing your bulbs in the fall. When you divide your daffodils, discard any bulbs that show signs of infestation.
Iris borer (Macronoctua onusta) is the most serious pest of iris. It is the larva (caterpillar) of iris borer moths. The mature caterpillar can reach 1-3/8 inches in length. It is pale yellowish-pink to pink with a brown head and has rows of black spots along its sides.
The adult moths that emerge late in summer mate and lay eggs on old iris leaves and nearby plants. The borer overwinters (survives the winter) as eggs. In the spring, tiny caterpillars hatch out and feed on new leaves. Because of the feeding, the leaf margins may appear water-soaked, bleed plant sap, and become ragged. The caterpillars then mine (feed in slender tunnels) inside the leaves before moving down to the rhizomes. They may feed on the outside of the rhizome or bore inside and feed until they mature. A single iris borer can ingest the entire contents of a rhizome before moving to another rhizome. It is common for bacterial and fungal root rot to develop in borer damaged rhizomes. At maturity, the borer leaves the rhizome and enters the soil to pupate (transform into the nonfeeding stage where the larva changes into an adult form). Iris borer damage is generally first noticed in the fall when the damaged rhizomes are dug for transplanting in late summer.
Control: Old stems and leaves should be removed in the fall or winter to eliminate overwintering eggs. If borer damage is noticed in the spring, hold young leaves up to the sun, and if present, the borers will be readily visible. The small caterpillars can be crushed between thumb and finger or by using a pointed stick.
When rhizomes are dug for dividing, cut off and destroy heavily infested rhizomes. With rhizomes that are only minimally damaged, you can attempt to kill the larva by trying to stab it with a needle or wire inserted through the entry hole. Again, there is always a chance of not killing the larva and simply damaging the rhizome even more.
If iris borer has been a problem in the past, rhizomes can be sprayed with an insecticide when the new foliage is 4 to 6 inches tall in the spring and again 2 weeks later. Insecticides that control the iris borer are acephate, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, lambda cyhalothrin, zeta cypermethrin, and permethrin. See Table 1 for examples of brands and products.
Lesser Canna Leafroller
The lesser canna leafroller (Geshna cannalis) is the larva (caterpillar) of the lesser canna leafroller moth. The caterpillar ranges in size from 1/16 inch when newly hatched to 7/8 inch when mature. As it matures, its body changes from cream to greenish, but its head remains yellowish.
The leafrollers survive the winter in rolled, dead leaves of the canna. They mature into adults, which appear in the spring. Adult females lay their eggs on the canna. Initially, the tiny, newly hatched caterpillars tunnel inside the leaves between the upper and lower surfaces. When they become too large, they exit to the upper leaf surface, where they fasten edges of leaves so that the leaves cannot unfurl, or they can roll one edge of an already open leaf. While in this protected area, they generally feed on the leaf’s upper surface but will also bore through the rolled leaf. Infested leaves often have several holes through them. Heavily infested leaves may not open at all, and the plants may fail to bloom. When fully mature, the caterpillars spin a cocoon where they transform into adults. More than one generation occurs per year.
Control: Since the caterpillars overwinter in the canna leaves, removing and destroying above-ground plant parts in the winter will reduce the population of this pest. For severe infestations, sprays with a foliar systemic insecticide, such as acephate or spinosad, will kill the borers within the leaves. One or two sprays may be sufficient. The natural insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), will control the leaf rollers if sprayed 3 times at weekly intervals when damage is first noticed. Spray Bt in the evening, and spray into the rolled leaves if the damage is advanced. See Table 1 for examples of brands and products.
Table 1. Control of Flowering Bulb Insect Pests
|Active Ingredient||Examples of Brands & Products|
|Acephate||Bonide Systemic Insect Control Concentrate|
|Bonide Thuricide Bt Concentrate|
|Garden Safe Bt Worm & Caterpillar Killer Concentrate|
|Monterey Bt; & RTU2|
|Natural Guard Caterpillar Killer Spray with Bt Concentrate; & RTU2|
|Safer Brand Caterpillar Killer Concentrate|
|Southern Ag Thuricide Bt Caterpillar Control Concentrate|
|Bifenthrin||Ferti-lome Broad Spectrum Insecticide Concentrate; & RTS1|
|Hi-Yield Bug Blaster Bifenthrin 2.4 Concentrate; & RTS1|
|Monterey Mite & Insect Control Concentrate|
|Ortho Outdoor Insect Killer Concentrate|
|Ortho BugClear Insect Killer for Lawns & Landscapes Concentrate; & RTS1|
|Ortho Bug-B-Gon Insect Killer for Lawns & Gardens Conc.; & RTS1|
|Cyfluthrin||Bayer BioAdvanced Complete Insect Killer for Soil & Turf I RTS1|
|Insecticidal Soap3||Bonide Insecticidal Soap RTU2|
|Espoma Organic Insect Soap RTU2|
|Garden Safe Insecticidal Soap Insect Killer RTU2|
|Miracle Gro Nature’s Care Insecticidal Soap RTU2|
|Natria Insecticidal Soap RTU2|
|Natural Guard Insecticidal Soap Concentrate|
|Safer Brand Insect Killing Soap Concentrate|
|Whitney Farms Insecticidal Soap RTU2|
|Lambda Cyhalothrin||Martin’s Cyonara Lawn & Garden Concentrate; & RTS1|
|Martin’s Cyzmic CS Controlled Release Insecticide Concentrate|
|Spectracide Triazicide Insect Killer for Lawns & Landscapes Conc.; & RTS1|
|Permethrin||Bonide Eight Insect Control Vegetable, Fruit & Flower Concentrate|
|Bonide Total Pest Control – Outdoor Concentrate|
|Bonide Eight Yard & Garden RTS1|
|Bonide Eight Garden & Home Insect Control RTU2|
|Hi-Yield Indoor/Outdoor Broad Use Insecticide Concentrate|
|Hi-Yield Lawn Garden Pet & Livestock Insect Control Concentrate|
|Southern Ag Permetrol Lawn & Garden Insecticide Concentrate|
|Tiger Brand Super 10 Concentrate|
|Spinosad||Bonide Colorado Potato Beetle Beater Concentrate|
|Bonide Captain Jack’s Deadbug Brew Concentrate; & RTS1; & RTU2|
|Conserve SC Turf & Ornamental Concentrate|
|Ferti-lome Borer, Bagworm & Leafminer Spray Concentrate|
|Monterey Garden Insect Spray Concentrate|
|Natural Guard Spinosad Bagworm, Tent Caterpillar & Chewing Insect Control Concentrate; & RTS1|
|Natural Guard Spinosad Soap RTU2|
|Ortho Insect Killer Tree & Shrub Concentrate|
|Southern Ag Conserve Naturalyte Insect Control Concentrate|
|Zeta Cypermethrin||GardenTech Sevin Insect Killer Concentrate; & RTS1|
|Gordon’s Bug-No-More Large Property Insect Control Concentrate|
|Gordon’s Bug-No-More Lawn & Garden Insect Control Concentrate|
|1 RTS = Ready to Spray (hose-end applicator)
2 RTU = Ready to Use (pre-mixed spray bottle)
3 Do not apply insecticidal soaps when the temperature is above 90 °F or to drought-stressed plants. Spray this and all insecticides late in the day.